Argo Buoy Update

Argo buoy tracks from buoys deployed on the Heard Island Expedition.  Red dots indicate most recent position.  The first set of buoys were deployed between Cape Town, South Africa, and Heard Island (center).  The color scheme has been reused for the second set of buoys, deployed between Heard Island and Fremantle, Western Australia.  Image credit: Bill Mitchell (CC-BY).
Argo buoy tracks from buoys deployed on the Heard Island Expedition. Red dots indicate most recent position. The first set of buoys were deployed between Cape Town, South Africa, and Heard Island (center). The color scheme has been reused for the second set of buoys, deployed between Heard Island and Fremantle, Western Australia. Image credit: Bill Mitchell, using OpenStreetMap continents (CC-BY).

About ten months ago, the Heard Island Expedition team launched the first of our eleven Argo buoys into the Indian Ocean. The buoys are equipped with conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instruments, and spend most of their time drifting about 1 km beneath the ocean surface. Every ten days, they dive to 2 km, then record CTD data as they ascend to the surface. At the surface, they relay the data via satellite over the course of a day before returning to 1 km depth. With a large network of these buoys, scientists can gather important data on currents under the ocean, as well as changes in temperature and salinity profiles.

Over time, ocean currents move the buoys. None of our eleven buoys are where they started, and some have moved far away from where they entered the ocean. We deployed two batches of buoys: six before reaching Heard Island from Cape Town, and five more on our voyage on to Fremantle/Perth.

I have obtained the latest position data (as of Jan 14, 2017) for the eleven buoys. Their tracks are shown in the figure at the top of this post. Tracks are colored by buoy, reusing the colors for the first and second batch. Some of the buoys have moved more than 1500 km as the albatross flies, with path lengths approaching 3000 km!

The CTD data are also interesting. For instance, here are the temperature/depth and salinity/depth profiles measured by buoy 5902454 (dark blue path on second leg of map above).

Temperature/depth profiles over time for buoy 5902454.  Image credit: Coriolis Data Centre.
Temperature/depth profiles over time for buoy 5902454. Image credit: Coriolis Data Centre.
Salinity/depth profiles over time for buoy 5902454.  Image credit: Coriolis Data Centre.
Salinity/depth profiles over time for buoy 5902454. Image credit: Coriolis Data Centre.

Around December 1, buoy 5902454 encountered a different water mass with colder, saltier water throughout much of the 2 km water column.

Generally for these buoys, the surface water temperatures reflect the seasonal variations (warmer in Austral summer, colder in winter), while the deep water shows less variation—but sometimes there are shifts between different water masses.

Interested in keeping up with the latest from these buoys, or checking out their CTD data? Use these links (buoy number, in order by our deployment date):
1901910
1901812
1901811
1901813
1901809
1901838

5902451
5902452
5902453
5902454
5902455

Correction An earlier version of this article referred in several places to deploying ten buoys. The correct number is eleven.

Advertisements