Eruption on Heard Island

Today there is a new video out from scientists aboard the R/V Investigator which shows a volcanic eruption occurring from Mawson Peak, Heard Island. This is an exciting video not because it is unusual for an eruption to happen on Heard Island—the Global Volcanism Program shows activity on about an annual basis for the last few years—but because it is unusual for someone to be there to see it!

In the video above, a small plume can be seen over Mawson Peak, and a few lava flows. Given the terrain near the summit and the imagery below from lava flows in 2013, I think it is safe to say that the flows are heading down the southwest flank. As someone going to this island in less than two months, the direction of lava flows is important: it is away from the campsites which we intend to use.

Lava flow on Heard Island, April 20, 2013. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team.
Lava flow on Heard Island, April 20, 2013. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team.

From the video above, this appears to be an effusive eruption, where lavas gently flow out of the volcano. That eruptive style is consistent with a hot (~1100 °C), basaltic (low-SiO2) melt—eruptions with a high SiO2 content tend to have cooler lava and are more often explosive in nature. Basalts or other lavas (trachybasalts and basanites) with low SiO2 (48–52%) are typical of the Big Ben series of lavas (Big Ben being the volcano upon which Mawson Peak is located).[1] Predicting that the lavas from this eruption would be generally low-SiO2 seems fairly safe, although our expedition is not equipped to undertake the sampling required to test that prediction.

Finally, if you’re wondering what happens when a basaltic lava flows out onto ice and snow, know that experimental volcanologists at Syracuse University have asked that question and made a video.

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[1] Barling, J.; Goldstein, S. L.; Nicholls, I. A. (1994) Geochemistry of Heard Island (Southern Indian Ocean): Characterization of an Enriched Mantle Component and Implications for Enrichment of the Sub-Indian Ocean Mantle. Journal of Petrology 35:1017-1053, doi 10.1093/petrology/35.4.1017.

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