In order to better understand the project, and what I will be doing on Heard Island, it is important to know things about the island itself. Perhaps the easiest thing to talk about is where the island is.
Here’s the same world map as above, but now with additional annotation. Shown in partial transparency is the western hemisphere antipodes (opposite side of the world). A red arrow points to Heard Island, and a red circle in Saskatchewan marks Heard Island’s (approximate) antipode.
As you can see, Heard Island (technically Heard Island and McDonald Islands) is far away from other land, and about as far from Minnesota as one can go without being in space.* There are no airports on the island. Only by sea (or helicopter for the final mile) can we reach the island. For our expedition, there will be no helicopter.
To reach the island, our team will board the
Akademik Shokalskiy in Fremantle, Australia (southwest corner, near Perth) RV Braveheart in Cape Town, South Africa. We will then sail southwest southeast through the Roaring Forties and into the Furious Fifties, and about ten days after departure (weather permitting, and in that part of the world it is often inclement) we will arrive.
Heard Island is of a modest size, 20-30 km across (13-20 miles). In the center is a 9000-foot tall volcano, Big Ben, which I will elaborate on in a further post. Mantling Big Ben and flowing down to the sea are glaciers, which cover the majority of the island. In many places, the ice forms sheer cliffs where it enters the sea, making landing on the island difficult.
There is no permanent human settlement on Heard Island. An early research party stayed for fifteen months during 1947-1948 , and the most recent winter expedition was in 1992. It is an Australian territory, and home to one of Australia’s two active volcanoes—the other being the smaller, nearby McDonald Island.
Because Heard Island is so remote and has such active surface geology (volcano, glaciers, streams, high wind) and has no permanent inhabitants or introduced species, it has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.** These conditions make the island an excellent natural laboratory to study all sorts of phenomena from climate change to glaciology to biology.*** I’ll have lots more on all that coming up in future posts!
* Space is much closer to Minneapolis than Heard Island, or even South Dakota.
** For more on this general topic, the Wikipedia page on the Geography of Heard Island and McDonald Islands is informative.
*** While it is unlike me to paraphrase J. D. Salinger’s Holden Caulfield (from Catcher in the Rye), if you thought it was a somewhat tricky question figuring out where ducks go in the winter, think about where these penguins go in the winter. They do migrate away from Heard Island.